Khalil Maleki

Pages: 320
Subject: Middle East, History, Biography, Politics
Series: Radical Histories of the Middle East
Imprint: Oneworld Academic

Khalil Maleki

The Human Face of Iranian Socialism

Homa Katouzian

The first biography of one of Iran's most original socialist thinkers and activists

The Book

Khalil Maleki (1901-1969) was a selfless campaigner for democracy and social welfare in twentieth-century Iran. His was a unique approach to politics, prioritising the criticism of policies detrimental to his country's development over the pursuit of power itself. An influential figure, he was at the centre of such formative events as the split of the communist Tudeh party, and the 1953 coup and its aftermath.

In an age of intolerance and uncompromising confrontation, Maleki remained an indefatigable advocate for open discussion and peaceful reform - a stance that saw him jailed several times. This work makes a compelling case for him to be regarded among the foremost thinkers of his generation.

Additional Information

Subject Middle East, History, Biography, Politics
Series Radical Histories of the Middle East
Pages 320
Imprint Oneworld Academic


About the Author

Homa Katouzian is the Iran Heritage Foundation Research Fellow at St Antony's College, University of Oxford. He is the author of numerous books on Iranian history, society and literature. In 2013 he was awarded the first SINA Outstanding Achievement Award for Exceptional Contributions in Humanities.


'The combination of Katouzian's firsthand knowledge of some of the episodes on which he reports, his detailed record of Maleki's associations with other prominent intellectual and political figures of the mid-twentieth century, and his wide-angle account of social and political life in modern Iran makes the book a unique and valuable resource for scholars of modern Iranian history and political thought.'

- Iranian Studies

Khalil Maleki is not only an authoritative and insightful account of the political life and ideas of Iran's foremost democratic socialist during the middle decades of the twentieth century, but an erudite and incisive analysis of the country's intellectual and political history through that fateful century. It is based on a wealth of primary sources and the author's own lifetime of prodigious scholarship.'

- Ali Banuazizi, Professor of Political Science, Boston College

‘A major contribution to the recovery of the rich, but lesser-known, tradition of the Iranian Left. Khalil Maleki's life, and his intellectual journey, tell the story of the complicated road Iran travelled in its desire to achieve a "national” modernity, and to be at "home” with the modern world. In this context, Dr Katouzian's work deserves considerable scholarly attention for its achievement.'

- Ali Mirsepassi, Professor of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, New York University

‘Drawing on his lifetime's work on Iranian modern history, Homa Katouzian has provided us with a rich and authoritative account of Khalil Maleki's political and intellectual life.'

- Roham Alvandi, Associate Professor of International History, London School of Economics and Political Science

Table of Contents


A Note on Transliteration

Introduction: The Age of Khalil Maleki


1 Khalil Maleki and the Fifty-Three

2 The Tudeh Party

3 Power Struggles and Oil Nationalisation

4 The Toilers Party

5 The Third Force

6 The 1953 Coup and After

7 Power Struggles, 1960-1963

8 Maleki: The Last Phase


Epilogue: Maleki's Success and Failure

Select Bibliography



Also by this author